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    Monophilic Liquid Crystals derived from Sugars



    [LC colors] Sugars are very suitable source for monophilic liquid crystals. They have strong chirality fixed in rigid rings leading to unusual chirality effects of the mesophases (helical inversions, TGBA phases, reentrant cholesteric and reentrant TGBA phases, etc.). They exist in big varity of diastereomers allowing an efficient fine tuning of the physical properties. They are very easy accessible. This allows new technical applications like color pigments. Our carbohydrate liquid crystals are now used for the new BASF printing colors : Ultraking Paliocolor®. Rainbow colors are reflected at the helical pitch of the cholesteric phase. The observed color depends on the viewing angle, e.g. the beatle looks green and blue.


    Helical twisting power of carbohydrate derivatives
    V. Vill, F. Fischer and J. Thiem
    Z. Naturforsch. 43a, 1119-1125 (1988).


    Ferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures with carbohydrate derivatives as dopants
    V. Vill, F. Fischer and J. Thiem
    Z. Naturforsch. 44a, 675-679 (1989).


    Synthesis and properties of calamitic liquid crystals from deoxygenated carbohydrate derivatives
    P. Pudlo, J. Thiem and V. Vill
    Chem. Ber. 123, 1129-1135 (1990).


    Discotic Peracylated Glycosides
    V. Vill and J. Thiem
    Liq. Cryst. 9, 451-455 (1991).


    The Use of Simple Sugars for the Synthesis of Chiral Monophilic Liquid Crystals
    V. Vill, F. Bachmann, I. Pelyvás, P. Pudlo and J. Thiem
    Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 213, 57-65 (1992).


    First Observation of Selective Reflection and Blue Phases in Chiral Discotic Liquid Crystals
    D. Krüerke, H.-S. Kitzerow, G. Heppke and V. Vill
    Ber. Bunsen-Ges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1371-1375 (1993).


    Use of chiral group 4-hydroxyl-1-alkyl-2,3,5-tridesoxy-á-D-glyceropento-pyranoside for production of polar, liquid-crystal material
    P. Delavier, K. Siemensmeyer, V. Vill and A. Hartwig
    German Patent DE 4.316.826.4 (19.5.93/24.11.94); Chem. Abstr. 122, 278274.


    Sign Inversion of the Helical Pitch in Carbohydrate-based Liquid Crystals
    V. Vill, H.-W. Tunger, H. Stegemeyer and K. Diekmann
    Tetrahedron Asymmetry 5, 2443-2446 (1994).


    Chiral dihydropyranyl benzoates and tetrahydropyranyl benzoates as liquid crystal dopants
    P. Delavier, K. Siemensmeyer, V. Vill, A. Hartwig, G. Gesekus and H.-W. Tunger
    Eur. Pat. Appl. EP 630.892 (13.05.1994/28.12.1994), 12 pp; Chem. Abstr. 123, 112073.


    A new homologous series of liquid crystals with a reentrente TGB-A phase
    V. Vill and H.-W. Tunger
    J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1047-1048 (1995).


    Liquid Crystals Derived from Carbohydrates: Synthesis and Properties of Oxadecaline Compounds
    V. Vill and H.-W. Tunger
    Liebigs Ann. 1055-1059 (1995).


    Sign inversion of the spontaneous polarisation in induced liquid crystalline smectic-C* phases
    H. Stegemeyer, A. Sprick, M.V. Osipov, V. Vill and H.-W. Tunger
    Phys. Rev. E51, 5721-5724 (1995).


    The Use of Glucose as a Trifunctional Building Block for Chiral Liquid Crystals
    V. Vill, H.-W. Tunger and M. Paul
    J. Mater. Chem. 5, 2283-2290 (1995).


    Polymerisierbare chirale Verbindungen und deren Verwendung
    K.-H. Etzbach, P. Delavier, K. Siemensmeyer, G. Wagenblast, L. Laupichler and V. Vill
    Ger. Offen. DE-OS 4.342.280 (11.12.1993/14.06.1995), 18 pp; Chem. Abstr. 123, 83352.


    Chiral compounds"
    K. Siemensmeyer, V. Vill, and H.-W. Tunger
    Ger. Offen. DE-OS 4.408.804 (15.03.1994/21.09.1995), 8 pp.; Chem. Abstr. 124, 41495.


    Thermochromic coatings
    M. Gailberger, A. Barth, H.R. Kricheldorf, V. Vill, M. Gurau and M. Berghahn
    Ger. Offen. DE-OS 4.416.993 (13.05.94/16.11.95); Eur. Pat. Appl. EP 682.092 (1.4.95/15.11.95), 18 pp.; Chem. Abstr. 124, 120282.


    Glucose: ein idealer Grundstoff für monophile Flüssigkristalle
    V. Vill and H.-W. Tunger
    Perspektiven nachwachsendender Rohstoffe in der Chemie, Editor H. Eierdanz, VCH Verlag Chemie, 1996, p. 299-303.


    Cholesteric helix inversion: Novel nitro compounds showing unusual changes of the cholesteric helical pitch
    Liq. Cryst. 20, 449-452 (1996).


    Structural Variation of Liquid Crystalline Trioxadecalines
    V. Vill, H.-W. Tunger and M. von Minden
    J. Mater. Chem. 6, 739-745 (1996).


    Re-entrant and induced mesophases: Mixed systems showing re-entrant TGBA and re-entrant cholesteric phases
    V. Vill, H.-W. Tunger and D. Peters
    Liq. Cryst. 20, 547-552 (1996).


    Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals based on Carbohydrates
    V. Vill, H.-W. Tunger and A. Borwitzky
    Ferroelectrics 180, 227-231 (1996).


    Chiral compounds and their uses
    K. Siemensmeyer, V. Vill, H.-W. Tunger and M. Paul
    Ger. Offen. DE 4.442.614 (30.11.94); Eur. Pat. Appl. EP 714.904 (21.11.95), publ. 5.6.96.


    Cholesteric helix inversion: Investigations on the influence of terminal group on the inversion of the helical pitch in trioxadecalins
    V. Vill, M. von Minden and D. Bruce
    J. Mater. Chem. 7, 893-899 (1997).


    Synthesis of Chiral Liquid Crystals with a Bisubstituted Tetrahydropyran Ring
    A. Borwitzky, G. Gesekus and V. Vill,
    Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 3319, 105-108 (1998).


    Chiral effects in trioxadecalin derived liquid crystals
    V. Vill, H. M. von Minden, D. Sinou, C. Moineau, V. Bolitt
    Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 3319, 109-112 (1998).


    Liquid Crystalline Trioxadecalins: The Mesogenic Chirality as Sensor for Molecular Conformation and Orientation
    V. Vill, B. Bertini, D. Sinou
    ACS Sym. Ser. 798, 206-213, 2001.


    Stereospecific synthesis of new trioxadecalin derived liquid crystals bearing halogen substituents on the phenyl ring
    B. Bertini, C. Moineau, D. Sinou, G. Gesekus, V.Vill
    Eur. J. Org. Chem. 375-381 (2001).


    Enantiopure trioxadecalin derived liquid crystals: influence of phenyl substitution on the mesogenic properties
    B. Bertini, C. Moineau, D. Sinou, V.Vill
    J. Carbohydr. Chem. 315-327 (2001).


    Chiral 1,3-dioxanes
    F. Prechtl, S. Haremza, F. Meyer, R. Parker, K. Kürschner, V. Vill, M. Paul
    Eur. Pat. Appl. EP 1.136.478 (08.03.2001/26.09.2001).




    Amphiphilic Liquid Crystals Derived from Carbohydrates



    [membran] The simplest way to make liquid crystals from sugars are alkylated sugar. The amphiphilic character causes the mesomorphic properties. This mesogenes can have surfactant properties. They have importants in biological systems. And, they allow a well defined architecture of macroscopic ordered systems. Our focus are glycolipids of plant membrans and the influence of the chemical configuration on membran fusion, endocytose and cell-cell regognition processes.


    Studies on liquid-crystalline glycosides
    V. Vill, Th. Böcker, J. Thiem and F. Fischer
    Liq. Cryst. 6, 349-356 (1989).


    Flüssigkristalline 4,6-Alkylidenglucosen
    J. Thiem, V. Vill, R. Miethchen and D. Peters
    J. Prakt. Chem. 333, 173-175 (1991).


    Liquid Crystalline 6-Desoxy Glycosides
    V. Vill, T. Lindhorst and J. Thiem
    J. Carbohydr. Chem. 10, 771-786 (1991).


    Liquid Crystalline Glucamine Derivatives
    V. Vill, H. Kelkenberg and J. Thiem
    Liq. Cryst. 11, 459-467 (1992).


    Enzymatic Synthesis of Discotic Liquid Crystals
    V. Vill, B. Sauerbrei and J. Thiem
    Liq. Cryst. 11, 949-952 (1992).


    Synthesis and Properties of Sulfated Alkyl Glycosides
    Th. Böcker, Th. K. Lindhorst, J. Thiem and V. Vill
    Carbohydr. Res. 230, 245-256 (1992).


    D-Galacturonsäurederivate mit flüssigkristallinen Eigenschaften
    Ch. Vogel, U. Jeschke, V. Vill and H. Fischer
    Liebigs Ann. Chem. 1171-1177 (1992).


    A Carbohydrate with a Rectangular Discotic Phase
    H. Fischer, V. Vill, V. Vogel and U. Jeschke
    Liq. Cryst. 15, 733-737 (1993).


    Liquid-Crystalline D-Glucose Dialkyl Acetals and Dodecyl D-Glucofuranosides
    L.F. Tietze, K. Böge and V. Vill
    Chem. Ber. 127, 1065-1068 (1994).


    A note on the melting point of a-solanine - The solution of a riddle -
    V. Grassert and V. Vill
    Liquid Crystals Today 4 (1) 4-5 (1994).


    Mesogenic Amino Sugars
    P. Stangier, S. Rohde, V. Vill, J. Thiem and U. Jeschke
    Liq. Cryst. 17, 589-595 (1994).


    On the structure of the thermotropic cubic phase
    S. Fischer, H. Fischer, S. Diele, G. Pelzl, K. Jankowsky, R.R. Schmidt and V. Vill
    Liq. Cryst. 17, 855-861 (1994).


    Thermotropic Liquid Crystals Based on Amphiphilic Carbohydrates
    H. Prade, R. Miethchen and V. Vill
    J. Prakt. Chem. 337, 427-440 (1995).


    Mesomorphic Derivatives of the 6-Amino-6-deoxy-D-galactose
    U. Jeschke, Ch. Vogel, V. Vill and H. Fischer
    J. Mater. Chem. 5, 2073-2078 (1995).


    Investigation of the influence of carbohydrate amphiphiles on the complex catalysed asymmetric hydrogenation of (Z)-methyl acetamidocinnamte in water
    I. Grassert, V. Vill, G. Oehme
    J. Mol. Catalysis A116, 231-236 (1997).


    Thermotropic and lyotropic phase behaviour of monoalkyl glycosides
    P. Sakya, J.M. Seddon and V. Vill
    Liq. Cryst. 23, 409-424 (1997).


    Thermotropic and lyotropic properties of long chain alkyl glycopyranosides, Part I: Monosaccharide headgroups
    V. Vill, H.M. von Minden, M.H.J. Koch, U . Seydel, K. Brandenburg
    Chem. Phys. Lipids 104, 75-91 (2000).


    Preparation and characterization of new micelle-forming cholesterol amphiphiles
    D. Meißner, I. Grassert, G. Oehme, G. Holzhüter, V. Vill
    Colloid Polym. Sci. 278, 364-368 (2000).


    Thermotropic and lyotropic properties of long chain alkyl glycopyranosides, Part II: Disaccharide headgroups
    H. M. von Minden, K. Brandenburg, U. Seydel, M. H. J. Koch
    V. Garamus, R. Willumeit, V. Vill, Chem. Phys. Lipids 106, 157-179 (2000).


    Conformatiotional and Thermal Phase Behavior of Oligomethylene Chains Constrained by Carbohydrate Hydrogen-Bond Networks
    M. Masuda, V. Vill, T. Shimizu
    J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12327-12333 (2000)


    Helical Twisting Power of Glycolipids in Lyotropic Cholesteric Phases
    K. Hiltrop, M. von Minden, M. Pape, V. Vill
    J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 236, 108-115 (2001).


    Synthesis and mesogenic properties of glycosyl diacylglycerols
    H. M. von Minden, M. Morr, G. Milkereit, E. Heinz, V. Vill
    Chem. Phys. Lipids 114, 55-80 (2002).


    Carbohydrate liquid crystals: structure/property relationship of thermotropic and lyotropic glycolipids
    V. Vill, R. Hashim
    Curr. Opinion Colloid Interf. Sci. 7, 395-409 (2002).


    Effects of carbohydrate headgroups on the stability of induced cubic phases in binary mixtures of glycolipids
    H. M. von Minden, G. Milkereit, V. Vill
    Chem. Phys. Lipids 120, 45-56 (2002).


    Synthesis of Branched-Chain Alkyl Glucosides and Their Liquid Crystal Behaviour
    H. Hassan , A. Sazali Hamzah , V. Vill , M. Wulf
    electronic-Liquid Crystal Communications, 2003/Feb/05 07:19:24, 2003
    http://www.e-lc.org/.




    Lipids and Steroids



    Lipids like paraffins give ordered phases like smectic B. Steroids are special class of chiral lipids, which give less ordered phases and smectic A phases without phase separation. The relationship between thermotropic properties and biological functions is not clear yet. Steroids are a very suitable source for chiral liquid crystals.


    Ferroelektrische Cholesterin-Derivate
    V. Vill and J. Thiem
    Z. Naturforsch. 45a, 1205-1210 (1990).


    Steroidal ether lipids with liquid crystalline properties
    V. Vill and N. Weber
    Chem. Phys. Lipids 58, 105-110 (1991).


    3b-Alkoxycholest-5-enes
    V. Vill and N. Weber
    Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett. 8, 49-51 (1991).


    Flüssigkristalline aromatische Cholesterin-Derivate
    V. Vill, J. Thiem and P. Rollin
    Z. Naturforsch. 47a, 515-520 (1992).


    Liquid Crystalline Cholestanyl and Cholesteryl Ether Lipids
    V. Vill and N. Weber
    Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 250, 73-83 (1994).


    Use of chiral group R-(+)-3-oxyalkyl-cyclopentene for production of polar, liquid-crystal material
    P. Delavier, K. Siemensmeyer, S. Rohde, V. Vill and N. Weber
    German Patent DE 4.316.444.7 (19.5.93/24.11.94); Chem. Abstr. 122, 278273.


    Synthesis and Photochemical Behaviour of 3-(Estran-16-yl)acrylates and 2-(Estran-16-yl)vinyl ketones
    Thies Thiemann, Carolin Thiemann, Shinya Sasaki, Volkmar Vill, Shuntaro Mataka and Masashi Tashiro
    J. Chem. Res. (S) 248-249, (M) 1736-1750 (1997).




    Liquid Crystals with Aliphatic Rings



    The study of aliphatic rings can be used to quantify the influence of the conformation and global molecular shape on mesogenic properties.


    Synthesis, Properties and Conformations of Liquid Crystalline 1,4-Dioxanes and Comparison with the Corresponding 1,4-Dithian, Cyclohexane, and Benzene Derivatives
    J. Thiem, V. Vill and F. Fischer
    Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 170, 43-51 (1989).


    Flüssigkristalle mit monosubstituierten aliphatischen Ringen
    V. Vill and J. Thiem
    Z. Naturforsch. 45a, 1345-1348 (1990).


    Correlation of Liquid Crystalline Properties and Molecular Conformations of Series of Homologue Dioxanes
    V. Vill and J. Thiem
    Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett. 8, 27-32 (1991).


    Liquid crystalline bicyclopentanes
    Armin de Meijere, Matthias Messner and Volkmar Vill
    Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 257, 161-167 (1994).


    Synthesis and liquid crystalline properties of 5-alkyl-1,4-dioxane-2-carboxylic esters
    M. Braun, B. Spieker, A. Hahn, V. Vill
    Synthesis 2129-2137 (2002).




    New Liquid Crystalline Materials for Various Applications



    Synthesis and Properties of Bis(5-alkoxytropolonato) Metallomesogens
    A. Mori, M. Takemoto, R. Mori, H. Takeshita, S. Ujiie
    Chem. Lett. 601-602 (1998).


    New Twin-Type Troponoid Liquid Crystals with a Smectic C Phase
    A. Mori, M. Takemoto, V. Vill
    Chem. Lett. 617-618 (1998).


    Convergent Synthesis of Columnar Twins and Tetramers from Triphenylene Building Blocks. The First Example of a Columnar Spiro-Twin
    J.L. Schulte, S. Laschat, V. Vill, E. Nishikawa, H. Finkelmann, M. Nimtz
    Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2499-2506 (1998).


    Mesogenic Properties of Bis(5-Alkoxytropolonato)Metals
    A. Mori, M. Takemoto, R. Mori, H. Takeshita, S. Ujiie, V. Vill
    Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 332, 127-134 (1999).


    Hexakis(terthiophenylthio)benzene as a New Class of Liquid Crystalline Molecule
    S. Inoue, S. Nishiguchi, S. Murakami, Y. Aso, T. Otsubo, V. Vill, A. Mori, S. Ujiie
    J. Chem. Res. (S) 596-597 (1999).


    An Optically Active Diarylethene Having Cholesterol Units: A Dopant for Photoswitching of Liquid Crystal Phases
    K. Uchida, Y. Kawai, Y. Shimizu, V. Vill, M. Irie
    Chem. Lett. 654-655 (2000).


    Dimeric liquid crystals with two troponoid mesogenic moieties: effect of the direction of the carbonyl group on the mesomorphic properties
    M. Takemoto, A. Mori, S. Ujiie, V. Vill
    Liq. Cryst. 29, 687-695 (2002).


    Novel nitronyl nitroxides: synthesis and properties
    S. Greve, V. Vill, W. Friedrichsen
    Z. Naturforsch. 57c, 677-684 (2002).




    LiqCryst



    The statistical analysis of mesogenic properties allows the quantification of structure-property-relationships. The goal is the prediction of physical properties from the chemical structure.


    LiqCryst - Database of Liquid Crystalline Compounds


    LiqCryst News Letter, Issue 3/97

    Landolt-Börnstein, New Series, Vol. IV/7 "Liquid Crystals", Subvol. IV/7a to IV/7f
    Transition Temperatures and Related Properties of Mesogenic Compounds
    V. Vill, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992-1997.


    LiqCryst 2.1 - Liquid Crystal Database
    V. Vill
    Fujitsu Kyushu System (FQS) Ltd, Fukuoka, Japan, 1996;
    LCI Publisher, Hamburg, 1996.


    LiqCryst for Polymers 2.1
    V. Vill
    LCI Publisher, Hamburg, 1996.


    LiqCryst 3.0 - Liquid Crystal Database
    V. Vill
    Fujitsu Kyushu System (FQS) Ltd, Fukuoka, Japan, 1997;
    LCI Publisher, Hamburg, 1997.


    LiqCryst for Polymers 3.0
    V. Vill
    LCI Publisher, Hamburg, 1997.


    Conception and Realization of the Liquid Crystal Database LiqCryst
    V. Vill
    Liq. Cryst. Today 5 (3) 6-7 (1995).


    Predicting the transition temperature of smectic liquid crystalline compounds from their structure using artifical neural networks
    R. Schröder, H. Kränz, V. Vill, B. Meyer
    J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 1685-1689 (1996).


    A New Database in the Material Sciences
    V. Vill and Th. Thiemann
    GIT Labor-Fachzeitschrift 40, 1236-1237 (1996).


    Prediction of Material Properties from the Chemical Structures. The Clearing Temperature of Nematic Liquid Crystals Derived from their Chemical Structures by Artifical Neural Networks
    H. Kränz, V. Vill, B. Meyer
    J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci., 36, 1173-1177 (1996).


    LiqCryst: Database of Liquid Crystalline Compounds for Personal Computers
    Volkmar Vill
    Software-Entwicklung in der Chemie 10 (Ed. J. Gasteiger), GDCh, Frankfurt, p. 155-158 (1996).


    Development of an incremental system for the prediction of the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature of liquid crystals with two aromatic rings
    Th. Thiemann, and V. Vill
    Liq. Cryst. 22, 519-523 (1997).


    Homologous Series of Liquid Crystalline Steroidal Lipids
    T. Thiemann and V. Vill
    J. Phys. Ref. Chem. Data 26, 291-333 (1997).


    Vorhersage der Umwandlungstemperaturen flüssigkristalliner Verbindungen
    V. Vill and D. Peters
    Chemie und Informatik: Terra incognita oder das Land der unbegrenzten M&oouml;glichkeiten ?, Shaker Verlag, Aachen, Editor: B. Koppenhoefer and U. Epperlein, 1997.


    LiqCryst 2.1: database and scientific tool
    V. Vill, H. Sajus, and T. Thiemann
    Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 3318, 160-162 (1998).


    Prediction of phase transition temperatures of liquid crystals with the help of a similarity concept
    V. Vill and D. Peters
    Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 3319, 74-77 (1998).


    LiqCryst im WebDoc




    General Aspects of Liquid Crystal Research



    [Handbook of LCs] Handbook of Liquid Crystals, Vol. 1, 2a, 2b and 3
    D. Demus, J.W. Goodby, G.W. Gray, H.W. Spiess, V. Vill (Editors)
    VCH Verlag, Weinheim, 1998.


    General Synthetic Strategies
    Thies Thiemann and Volkmar Vill
    Handbook of Liquid Crystals, Vol. 1, Chapter 4, p. 87-113, 1998.


    Amphotropic Liquid Crystals
    D. Blunk, K. Praefcke and V. Vill
    Handbook of Liquid Crystals, Vol. 3, Chapter 6, p. 305-340, 1998.


    Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals
    D. Demus, J.W. Goodby, G.W. Gray, H.W. Spiess, V. Vill (Editors)
    Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 1999.


    Structure/Property Relationship of Liquid Crystals
    V. Vill, A. Mori
    Japanese Handbook of Liquid Crystals, Maruzen, Tokyo, Chapter 3.2, p. 267-280, 2000.


    Carbohydrate Liquid Crystals
    V. Vill, T. Kato Japanese Handbook of Liquid Crystals, Maruzen, Tokyo, Chapter 3.9.3, p. 432-438, 2000.


    Chemical Structures and Polymorphism
    V. Vill
    in "Chirality in Liquid Crystals", Ed. H. Kitzerow, Ch. Bahr, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001.


    Molecular Design of Liquid Crystals: Calamitics
    V. Vill
    in: Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Elsevier Science, p. 4545-4551, 2001.


    Landolt-Börnstein, New Series, Vol. VIII/5: Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals, Subvol. VIII/5A
    S. Pestov, Ed.: V. Vill
    Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003.




    History of Liquid Crystals



    Early History of Liquid Crystalline Compounds
    V. Vill
    Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 213, 67-71 (1992);
    Condens. Matter News. 1 (5) 25-28 (1992).


    The Development of Liquid Crystal Research
    V. Vill
    Adv. Mater. 6, 527-528 (1994).


    Vorländer's Wheel
    D.W. Bruce, K. Heyns and V. Vill
    Liq. Cryst. 23, 813-819 (1997).


    Grey Levels in the History of Liquid Crystals
    V. Vill
    Liq. Cryst. 24, 21-24 (1998).




    Chemical Information Systems



    [LB OI]

    SciDex is a new software system which can organize all scientific data, information and knowledge. SciDex has an object oriented database engine which was developed from the experiences of LiqCryst.

    SciDex - the Scientific Data Explorer

    Recent application of the SciDex software systems are the


    Landolt-Börnstein: Index of Organic Compounds, Subvol A, B and C
    V. Vill, G. Peters, H. Sajus
    Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999-2001.

    Landolt-Börnstein: Index of Organic Compounds, Subvol D, E and F
    Ch. Bauhofer, V. Vill, P.Weigner
    Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002-2004.


Last Change: 14.8.2003, 07:17 pm by Volkmar Vill
Design: Matthias Vill 2003 | Contact: Volkmar Vill